Bibliography for induced traffic

Relationships Between Highway Capacity and Induced Vehicles

For non-technical articles, please see our main links page. Technical articles are listed below in two groups:
studies that are not on the Internet (next), and
studies that have Internet links (further

Induced traffic: List of studies not on the Internet
below for studies on the Internet)

Mark Hansen and Yuanlin Huang, "Road Supply and Traffic in California Urban Areas," Transportation Research A, Vol. 31, No. 3, 1997, pp. 205-218.

Every 1% increase in new lane-miles generated a 0.9% increase in traffic in less than five years, which led them [Mark Hansen and Yuanlin Huang] to conclude that "With so much induced demand, adding road capacity does little to reduce congestion.":

Phil Goodwin, "Empirical Evidence on Induced Traffic," Transportation, Vol. 23, No. 1, Feb. 1996, pp. 35-54. This is in a special issue of the journal Transportation devoted to induced travel. It has several very good articles.

Robert Noland, Relationships Between Highway Capacity and Induced Vehicle Travel, Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting Paper 991069 (, January 1999.

Mark Hansen, "Do New Highways Generate Traffic?" Access, No. 7, Fall 1995, pp. 16-22.

Standing Advisory Committee on Trunk Road Assessment, Trunk Roads and the Generation of Traffic, UKDoT, HMSO (London), 1994.

Harry Cohen, "Review of Empirical Studies of Induced Traffic," Expanding Metropolitan Highways: Implications for Air Quality and Energy Use, Transportation Research Board, Special Report #345, National Academy Press (Washington DC), 1995, Appendix B, pp. 295-309.

Estimating the Impacts of Urban Transportation Alternatives, Participant's Notebook, National Highway Institute, NHI Course #15257, Federal Highway Administration (Washington DC), Dec. 1995.

Richard Arnott and Kenneth Small, "The Economics of Traffic Congestion," American Scientist, Vol. 82, Sept./ Oct. 1994, pp. 446-455.

An Analysis of the Relationship Between Highway Expansion and Congestion in Metropolitan Areas; Lessons from the 15-Year Texas Transportation Institute Study, Surface Transportation Policy Project (Washington DC;, 1998.

Cairns, Hass-Klau and Goodwin, Traffic Impacts of Highway Capacity Reductions: Assessment of the Evidence, London Transport Planning (London;, 1998.

Induced traffic: Studies on the internet

Compiled by Jane Beetem

Travel, Robert Noland, USEPA

EPA Region 3 Resources for Cumulative Effects Assessment

Evaluation of Modeling Tools for Assessing Land Use Policies and Strategies

An Analysis of the Relationship Between Highway Expansion and Congestion in Metropolitan Areas
the actual TTI study discussed in the above mentioned report

Accounting for Induced Travel in Evaluation of Urban Highway Expansion
spreadsheet download for above

Surface Transportation Efficiency Analysis Model

Social Costs of Alternative Land Development Scenarios

Center for Neighborhood Technology - Critique of the University of Illinois Urban Transportation Center Study "Highways and Urban Decentralization" November 1998

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